IQOS Illusion Sources

Supporting Evidence

What they claim: IQOS is safer than cigarettes.

Philip Morris International. Stop smoking cigarettes and switch to smoke-free alternatives [Internet].

Braznell S, Branston JR, Gilmore AB. Corporate communication of the relative health risks of IQOS through a webchat service. Tob Control. 2023;32(e2):e205–11.

Philip Morris International. IQOS research and clinical studies [Internet].

The evidence shows: IQOS has not been proven to reduce the risk of tobacco-related disease and its long-term health effects are unknown…

Bentley MC, Almstetter M, Arndt D, Knorr A, Martin E, Pospisil P, et al. Comprehensive chemical characterization of the aerosol generated by a heated tobacco product by untargeted screening. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2020;412(11):2675–85.

St. Helen G, Jacob P III, Nardone N, Benowitz NL. IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International’s claim of reduced exposure. Tob Control. 2018;27(Suppl 1):s30–6.

Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. The supplemental modified risk tobacco product application for IQOS 3 does not adequately address new published research and information on emissions [Internet]. 2021, Oct 14.

United States Food and Drug Administration. Scientific review of modified risk tobacco product application (MRTPA) under section 911(d) of the FD&C act [Internet].

Upadhyay S, Rahman M, Johanson G, Palmberg L, Ganguly K. Heated tobacco products: Insights into composition and toxicity. Toxics; 2023;11(8):667.

What they claim: PMI’s science on IQOS is “rigorous, robust, and transparent.”

Philip Morris International. Smoke-free products research [Internet]. 2024.

The evidence shows: PMI continues to manipulate and misuse science for its commercial benefit…

Braznell S, Laurence L, Fitzpatrick I, Gilmore AB, “Keep it a secret”: leaked documents suggest Philip Morris International, and its Japanese affiliate, continue to exploit science for profit. Nicotine Tob Res. 2024; doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntae101

Braznell S, Van Den Akker A, Metcalfe C, Taylor GMJ, Hartmann-Boyce J. Critical appraisal of interventional clinical trials assessing heated tobacco products: a systematic review. Tob Control. 2022;tobaccocontrol-2022-057522.

Braznell S, Campbell J, Gilmore AB. What can current biomarker data tell us about the risks of lung cancer posed by heated tobacco products? Nicotine Tob Res. 2024;26(3):270–80.

Legg T, Legendre M, Gilmore AB. Paying lip service to publication ethics: scientific publishing practices and the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. Tob Control. 2021;30(e1):e65–72.

Legg T, Clift B, Gilmore AB. Document analysis of the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World’s scientific outputs and activities: a case study in contemporary tobacco industry agnogenesis. Tob Control. 2023;tc-2022-057667.

Matthes BK, Fabbri A, Dance S, Laurence L, Silver K, Gilmore AB. Seeking to be seen as legitimate members of the scientific community? An analysis of British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International’s involvement in scientific events. Tob Control. 2023;tc-2022-057809.

What they claim: Millions have switched from cigarettes to IQOS.

Tobacco Tactics. PMI’s IQOS: Use, “switching” and “quitting” [Internet]. 2023, Feb 08.

Philip Morris International. The history of IQOS heated tobacco products [Internet].

The evidence shows: PMI’s definition of “switching” may not accurately reflect real-world use…

Kim J, Lee S, Kimm H, Lee J-A, Lee C-M, Cho H-J. Heated tobacco product use and its relationship to quitting combustible cigarettes in Korean adults. PLoS One. 2021;16(5):e0251243.

Chen DT-H. Dual and poly-use of novel and conventional nicotine and tobacco product use in Europe: Challenges for population health, regulatory policies, and the ways ahead. Front Public Health. 2023, Feb 15.

Odani S, Tabuchi T. Prevalence of heated tobacco product use in Japan: the 2020 JASTIS study. Tob Control. 2022;31(e1):e64–5.

Hwang JH, Ryu DH, Park S-W. Heated tobacco products: Cigarette complements, not substitutes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;204(107576):107576.

Sutanto E, Miller C, Smith DM, Borland R, Hyland A, Cummings KM, et al. Concurrent daily and non-daily use of heated tobacco products with combustible cigarettes: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2098.

Luk TT, Weng X, Wu YS, Chan HL, Lau CY, Kwong AC-S, et al. Association of heated tobacco product use with smoking cessation in Chinese cigarette smokers in Hong Kong: a prospective study. Tob Control. 2021;30(6):653–9.

Laverty AA, Vardavas CI, Filippidis FT. Prevalence and reasons for use of heated tobacco products (HTP) in Europe: an analysis of Eurobarometer data in 28 countries. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2021;8(100159):100159.

Hussain S, Sreeramareddy CT. Smoking cessation behaviors and reasons for use of electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products among Romanian adults. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1).

Gallus S, Lugo A, Liu X, Borroni E, Clancy L, Gorini G, et al. Use and awareness of heated tobacco products in Europe. J Epidemiol. 2022;32(3):139–44.

Tobacco Tactics. PMI’s IQOS: Use, “switching” and “quitting” [Internet]. 2023, Feb 08.

Philip Morris International. The history of IQOS heated tobacco products [Internet].